The Mapuche community, a resilient indigenous group in the Americas, has steadfastly preserved its beliefs, customs, and identity throughout history. Despite prolonged resistance during the colonial era, the Mapuche managed to secure a degree of autonomy, prompting the administration to establish fortifications along the frontier—a unique occurrence in colonial history. The Arauco War persisted until the late 19th century, concluding with the so-called "pacification" of Araucanía in 1891. This extended conflict not only involved military struggles but also facilitated cultural and economic exchanges, fostering a process of mestizaje.
During these interactions, the Mapuche adopted elements such as horses and silversmithing techniques. Following the "pacification," previously mobile groups settled into agrarian economies. The traditional livestock exchange with eastern Mapuche (in Argentina) diminished, giving way to community settlements. The family serves as the fundamental unit, residing in a structure known as the ruka. The head of the household, typically a man, engages in agriculture and livestock care, while women handle domestic tasks and cultural preservation, passing down values to the family. Polygamy, once a symbol of wealth and power, has faded due to economic reasons and Christian influence.
Communities, based on patrilineal kinship and shared territory, form economic ties through agricultural work, construction, and cultural events like the chueca or palin. Religious institutions and moral values play crucial roles in uniting and maintaining cultural cohesion. Historical shifts in authority, from the Ionko in extended families to Spanish-appointed caciques during the conquest, eventually led to the emergence of military leaders known as toquis during the Arauco War. Post-"pacification," caciques retained the right to distribute lands in reductions, contributing to social disintegration and urban migration in modern times.
Cosmology and Religious Beliefs: A Tapestry of Spirituality
Summarizing the richness of Mapuche cosmology and religious practices in brief is challenging. The Mapuche identity intertwines inseparably with the land, animals, and nature, making their existence almost sacred. Contemporary Mapuche incorporate Catholicism and Protestant evangelicalism into their syncretic religious worldview. The machi, a shaman, plays a vital role, acting as a mediator between the natural and supernatural realms. Ritual instruments like the kultrung and rewe hold symbolic significance, representing the universe's four parts.
The Mapuche cosmos, organized into opposing forces of good (south and east) and negative forces (north and west), reflects a mythic character. Deities like Ngnechen, representing opposing attributes, govern the celestial realm, while terrestrial forces emanate from Pillan, a deity associated with the east. Christianity's influence has shifted Mapuche beliefs towards monotheism, designating the Supreme Being as Father God (Chau - Dios). The syncretism also redefines Pillan as a malevolent entity rather than a benevolent deity.
Ceremonies: Bridging the Natural and Supernatural
Mapuche ceremonies, deeply rooted in their cosmology, seek to balance forces of good (Ngnechen) and evil (weküfe). Notable rituals include nguillatun (a prayer ceremony), machitun (a healing ritual), and wentripantu (New Year celebration). Nguillatun, lasting two to four days, involves prayers, dances, and the sacrifice of an animal to seek blessings for climate, crops, and health. The machi, crucial in this ceremony, chants while using the kultrung, invoking the elements for a bountiful harvest.
Machitun, described in the 16th century, focuses on the machi's diagnosis, expulsion of illness, and supernatural revelation. Instruments like the kultrung and rewe play vital roles, aiding the machi in her spiritual journey. These ceremonies provide a glimpse into the intricate tapestry of Mapuche spirituality, showcasing their deep connection with the natural and supernatural realms.
Conclusion: A Vibrant Tapestry of Tradition and Spirituality
In conclusion, the Mapuche people's rich cultural tapestry weaves together history, cosmology, and spirituality. Their ability to adapt and preserve their identity amidst historical challenges reflects the resilience of a community deeply rooted in its connection to the land and traditions. Understanding the intricacies of Mapuche cosmology and ceremonies offers a unique insight into a vibrant and dynamic cultural heritage, worthy of exploration and appreciation.